[Editor’s Note: Mad Scientist Laboratory appreciates all of our guest blogger submissions — these varied and insightful posts continue to broaden our understanding of the Operational Environment and the changing character of warfare! During the past year, we’ve published a number of intriguing guest submissions that have generated considerable interest and traffic from our readers. Of significant note were:
The previously recognized blog post 208. Guns of August 2035 – “Ferdinand Visits the Kashmir”: A Future Strategic and Operational Environment, by Mike Filanowski, Ruth Foutz, Sean McEwen, Mike Yocum, and Matt Ziemann (“Team RSM3” from the Army Futures Study Group Cohort VI in 2019). This post masterfully blended storytelling with geo-political trends analysis to describe the events that morph a hypothetical limited Asian conflict into one that ultimately embroils the U.S. Army in Large Scale Combat Operations with a near-peer competitor.
The recently published blog post 281. Would You Like to Play a Game? Wargaming as a Learning Experience and Key Assumptions Check, by Ian Sullivan, Special Advisor for Analysis and ISR, Deputy Chief of Staff, TRADOC G-2, also generated extensive interest from our readership. This insightful post addressed the relevant lessons that “old school” analog desktop wargames can still teach us about Large Scale Combat Operations with near-peer adversaries in the Twenty-first Century. In challenging our assumptions and reinvigorating our thoughts about the integral relationship between competition, crisis, conflict, and change, wargaming can be a useful tool in facilitating life-long learning and guarding against that most fatal of flaws in assessing the Operational Environment — the failure of imagination!
However, the author of the post that generated the greatest amount of site traffic over the past year, and the winner of the title “Maddest” Guest Blogger of 2020, is Richard Buchter, Army Futures Command Combat Capability Development Command Army Research Laboratory Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (AFC CCDC ARL/CISD), for blog post 237. Table of Future Technologies: A 360 Degree View Based on Anticipated Availability.
After spending considerable time and effort researching potentially game changing technologies that could support Army Modernization Priorities (AMP), Mr. Buchter created an innovative Table of Future Technologies that uses the familiar Periodic Table from Chemistry as a construct to both highlight his team’s research and provide us with a useful single portal with which to explore emergent tech across three time horizons plus an additional category of “wild cards.” Read on to re-visit how this table was constructed, how to use and decipher the information it contains, and highlights from each of the time horizons and wild cards — Enjoy!]
The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) was recently chartered by the Army Futures Command (AFC) to apprise it of potential future technologies that may inform Army leadership to help shape future decisions. To support this, along with other AFC taskings, ARL stood up Task Force (TF) Ignite. Under TF Ignite is the Technology Transition Team (T3) work group from which this concept originated.
This post and the associated table provides one means of easily viewing emerging technologies and accessing references for further information about new technologies of potential interest.
The Table of Future Technologies [accessible via this link to our Mad Scientist APAN site] is but one of several approaches for assimilating and displaying the myriad of technologies under consideration that have the potential to affect the operational environment. The table captures technologies based on their potential to affect one or more of the Army Modernization Priorities (AMPs). Please note that the technologies included in this table do not reflect endorsement, active pursuit, or interest by the U.S. Army and its subordinates, nor any coordination with AFC, Army Program Managers (PMs), or the Department of Defense (DoD) and its subordinates, for focus areas of interest. The resulting table is therefore a general collection of technologies in development outside the DoD that are presented to increase awareness of what may be.
An all available source review was conducted of over 600 books, magazines, web news articles, press releases, future predictions, and conferences. However, the table does not include current DoD programs or investment considerations, which are viewed as currently known to PMs. Specific technologies selected were subjectively chosen, based on their potential for affecting the AMPs: Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF); Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV); Future Vertical Lift (FVL); Networks/C3I (C3I); Air & Missile Defense (AMD); and Soldier Lethality (SL).
Wherever possible, reporting found within these articles was used to determine the initial year of availability (included in the table). When specific dates were not explicitly provided, availability was interpolated from references within the article. When those were unavailable, and the technology was being demonstrated in a laboratory setting today, the potential availability was shown as 10 years in the future. Lastly, several technologies featured in science fiction were also included to report progress towards enabling those capabilities.
An 11-by-8 grid table was constructed and divided into four sections according to projected availability. It is noted that the first three sections used loosely correspond to McKinsey’s Three Horizons Model for Innovation. For this table, the three horizons and their associated time frames are as follows: Horizon 1 (H1), happening now, near-term future (0–5 years); Horizon 2 (H2), mid-term future (5–10 years); and Horizon 3 (H3), far-term future (10+ years). These Horizons have also been known as:
- H1: Sustaining Technology, Continuous Improvement, The Art of Today
- H2: Emerging Technology, Adjacent Innovation, Critical Challenges, The Art of Tomorrow
- H3: Technology of the Future, Basic and Applied Research, Breakthroughs, The Art of the Possible, Long Term Bets, New Capabilities, Options, and Future Seed Corn
The table also features a fourth category: Wildcards (i.e., technology worth watching).
The grid was then populated with technologies identified in the 360 review, based on their anticipated availability. Each technology was then annotated as shown in Illustration 1. Each was assigned a two-letter code (abbreviation of technology, e.g., QC) corresponding to short description of the technology (e.g., Quantum Computing), a reference number (e.g., technology “element” 2, and the number of associated references found (e.g., 3). Finally, where indications exist (i.e., reporting of today’s baseline capability versus the improvement the new technology potentially brings to bear) of a potential 10X (a 10 times improvement or more) technology, or a technology that has the potential to create a major change in the market place, a red box was drawn around that technology’s border.
The resulting table incorporates some 76 technologies that possess the potential to alter the character of warfare and influence how the U.S. Army operates in the eras of accelerated human progress and contested equality. These include 22 near-term (H1), 16 mid-term (H2), 22 far-term (H3), and 16 Wildcard technologies. A single reference for each technology is provided in the references section at the end of this post. These technologies illustrate potential opportunities and challenges confronting the U.S. Army in the operational environment. By framing and scaling these technologies into a consumable product, Army leaders and planners can see and prepare for the future in a new way.
• H1 – The Art of Today: Sustaining Technology. Near-term advanced technologies will enhance core capabilities on the battlefield. Exoskeletons and 3D Printing will increase Soldier lethality and streamline battlefield logistics. Adversaries will have access to these advanced technologies, challenging U.S. forces in all domains. It will be a race to combat superiority.
• H2 – The Art of Tomorrow: Emerging Technology. Mid-term technologies will enable the warfighter in remote, austere operational environments with capabilities such as edge computing. A broadband invisibility cloak disguising Soldiers and equipment combined with self-healing materials will bolster troop strength and capabilities. Holodecks could provide an immersive virtual training and mission rehearsal experience. Staying on the cutting edge is key to tactical and strategic dominance.
• H3 – The Art of the Possible: Future Technology. Bionic, super strong Soldiers will emerge in the far-term. Advanced future technologies will allow warfighters to seamlessly interoperate with machines. Telepathy, 3D Printed Skin, and troop Batsuits could transform warfare. Thinking beyond normal boundaries will ensure battlefield supremacy.
• Wildcards: Game Changers. Improbable but potentially significant technologies could derail the Army’s Modernization Strategy and priorities. Potential disruptors and enablers to U.S. Army training and future battlefield operations include DNA computing and extended reality. Battlefield singularity could hinder human decision making, causing catastrophic effects on the battlefield. Planning for the unexpected ensures advantage.
The table provides an easy-to-understand means of when a technology may be available with associated references. It also embodies the spirit of innovation in what Dr. Seuss once wrote about for searching for new things: “If you want to catch beasts you don’t see every day, you have to go to places quite out of the way.” Most of the technologies included within this table fall within the description of looking in unfamiliar, nontraditional, and out-of-the-way locations. But they are also active areas of research and progress that may be useful for future capabilities if and when they mature.
A similar table was constructed in 2018 by Imperial Tech Foresight (ITF), an offshoot of Imperial College London. While most technologies that are shown in both maintained their estimated availability dates, several showed progress towards an earlier availability date, in effect, pulling the future forward.
We are in a period of great technological change. The Table of Future Technologies presents a compact method for conveying new emerging technology availability associated with this change to Senior Leaders, PMs, and other interested parties to raise their awareness.
This table also represents an initial foray into one possible means of annually surveying and reporting future technology to increase awareness of both capability and potential availability. As this is an initial concept, and if interest warrants it, a revision can be conducted annually. With a continuation recommendation, technology found can be followed, and reporting of new technologies can be added as found. Additionally, watch items can be added and tracked.
If you enjoyed this post, check out the following:
Estimation of Technological Convergence by 2035, and the associated final report and briefing slides, by Lt Col Nicholas Delcour (USAF), Lt Col Louis Duncan (USAF), Mr. Stephen Frahm (DOS), CDR Patrick Lancaster (USN), and Lt Col Lance Vann (USAF), collectively known as the Army War College’s Mad Scientist Fellows of 2020, under the direction of Prof. Kristan Wheaton, U.S. Army War College.
Four Models of the Post-COVID World, The Operational Environment: Now through 2028, and The 2 + 3 Threat video
The Future Operational Environment: The Four Worlds of 2035-2050, the complete AFC Pamphlet 525-2, Future Operational Environment: Forging the Future in an Uncertain World 2035-2050, and associated video
What We are Learning about the Operational Environment
Emergent Global Trends Impacting on the Future Operational Environment
Innovation Isn’t Enough: How Creativity Enables Disruptive Strategic Thinking by Heather Venable
Making the Future More Personal: The Oft-Forgotten Human Driver in Future’s Analysis by Ian Sullivan
>>> REMINDER 1: We will facilitate the next webinar in our continuing Mad Scientist Robotics & Autonomy Series of Virtual Events this Thursday, 7 January 2021 (1100-1200 EST):
The Future of Unmanned Space Systems – featuring proclaimed Mad Scientists Ms. Kara Cunzeman, Lead Futurist for Strategic Foresight, Center for Space Policy and Strategy, The Aerospace Corporation; and Dr. Julia Badger, Autonomous Systems Technology Discipline Lead, NASA.
In order to participate in this virtual event, you must first register here [via a non-DoD network].
>>> REMINDER 2: We have launched our Mad Scientist Writing Contest on Competition, Crisis, Conflict, and Change to crowdsource the intellect of the Nation (i.e., You!) regarding:
How will our competitors deny the U.S. Joint Force’s tactical, operational, and strategic advantages to achieve their objectives (i.e., win without fighting) in the Competition and Crisis Phases?
How will our adversaries seek to overmatch or counter U.S. Joint Force strengths in future Large Scale Combat Operations?
Review the submission guidelines on our contest flyer, then get cracking brainstorming and crafting your innovative and insightful visions! Deadline for submission is 15 March 2021.
>>> REMINDER 3: Mad Scientist is also pleased to announce our new series of monthly virtual events – Are We Doing Enough, Fast Enough? – exploring our adversaries’ views on Competition, Crisis, Conflict, and Change. Join proclaimed Mad Scientists Dr. T.X. Hammes and Dr. Sean McFate, and Dr. David Kilcullen as they address the Operational Environment and Conflict Over the Next Decade, our initial webinar in this new series of events on 19 January 2021 (1000- 1100 EST). Register here via a non-DoD network to participate in this informative event!
Retired LCDR Richard Buchter, U.S. Navy, is a Subject Matter Expert (SME) at the Army Futures Command Combat Capability Development Command Army Research Laboratory’s, Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (AFC CCDC ARL/CISD). He holds both an MBA and an MS/Management of Information Systems from The Johns Hopkins University. He is currently writing a series of articles on Innovation Theory, and how it may be used to support targeted technology hunting. As a retired Naval Aviator, he has logged over 3,000 hours conducting sea- and land-based EW and ISR missions as a Mission Commander (MC). He is a member of DEF (the Defense Entrepreneurial Forum), AOC (the Association of Old Crows), AUVSI (Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International), and NESA (The National Eagle Scouts Association).
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this blog post are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Army Futures Command (AFC), or Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC).
Horizon 1 (Near-Term, 0-5 years)
1. 3p – 3D Metal Printing (2019)- Toulas, Bill, Metal 3D Printer “Metal X” Now Deployed in a U.S. Military Base, March 20, 2020, https://www.industrytap.com/metal-3d-printer-metal-x-now-deployed-in-a-u-s-military-base/52572
2. 4m – Man Mobile 4G Base Station on Moon (Lunar XPRIZE- 2019)- Malik, Tariq, The Moon Will Get Its Own Mobile Phone Network in 2019, Space, February 2, 2018, https://www.space.com/39835-moon-mobile-phone-network-ptscientists-2019.html
3. Gi – Ghost Imaging– Zyga, Lisa, Quantum Ghost Imaging Improved by Using Five-atom, Correlations, Phys.org, June 26, 2019, https://phys.org/news/2019-06-quantum-ghost-imaging-five-atom.html
4. Vc – Very High Speed Digital Video Compression (2019)- KT-Tech, http://www.kttech.com
5. Jp – Jetpack Racing (2019)- Valera, Stephanie, World’s First Jetpack Racing League to Launch in 2019, Geek.com, January 2, 2019, https://www.geek.com/tech/worlds-first-jetpack-racing-league-to-launch-in-2019-1767875/
6. Tr – Tricorder Based Medical Diagnosing (Tricorder XPRIZE-2019)- Best, Jo, Building the Tricorder: The Race to Create a Real-life Star Trek Medical Scanner, ZDNet, November 26, 2018, https://www.zdnet.com/article/building-the-tricorder-the-race-to-create-a-real-life-star-trek-medical-scanner/
7. 5s – 5G LEO SATCOM Commercial Service (US) (2020)- Brodkin, Jon, Elon Musk: Starlink Latency Will be Good Enough for Competitive Gaming, ArsTechnica, March 10, 2020, https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2020/03/musk-says-starlink-isnt-for-big-cities-wont-be-huge-threat-to-telcos/
8. Ei – Exascale Computing (2020)- Anderson, Mark, Will China Attain Exascale Supercomputing in 2020?, Spectrum, IEEE, January 7, 2020, https://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/hardware/will-china-attain-exascale-supercomputing-in-2020
9. Ex – Exoskeletons (2019)- Savvides, Lexy, Guardian XO Exoskeleton Can Amplify User Strength by 20 Times, CNET, December 11, 2019, https://interestingengineering.com/guardian-xo-exoskeleton-can-amplify-user-strength-by-20-times
10. Ru – Rapid Rocket Booster Reuse (SpaceX-2019)- Berger, Eric, Welcome to Muskville — Inside Elon Musk’s Plan to Build One Starship a Week—and Settle Mars, ArsTechnica, March 5, 2020, https://arstechnica.com/science/2020/03/inside-elon-musks-plan-to-build-one-starship-a-week-and-settle-mars/
11. Xe – Programmable Life (Xenobots)- Wang, Brian, Millimeter Wide Xenobots Are New Robots Made From Living Cells, NBF, January 14, 2020, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2020/01/millimeter-wide-xenobots-are-new-robots-made-from-living-cells.html
12. Lv – Low Latency Global Video (2024)- Video- Buchter, Richard M., In Search of 10X: Decoupling, Over The Horizon, April 2, 2020 (submitted), https://othjournal.com/
13. Ea – 1st Commercial Electric Aircraft (2019)- Kobie, Nicole, Here are 19 Things That Made the World a Better Place in 2019, Wired UK, December 19, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/11/15/within-10-years-well-travel-by-hyperloop-rockets-and-avatars/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=within-10-years-well-travel-by-hyperloop-rockets-and-avatars&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiT0RNeFpURm1ZMkkxWlRreCIsInQiOiJPNE9wN2MrajJcLzhmemY3RDVxODhwUVVHeWVDVVpuMkYySVpxNUt2c01VUklUbnBMUTZBdmdpOUFUUnFxSFdTdEdmeURBR2UyR0FFR0hKdW45anlKQ2NBNnUzdlNnR055MWFlVTFyZENKNXdRTzNCYjZQUkwzNWZNRDlXeG5TZ1EifQ%3D%3Dhttps://www.wired.co.uk/article/2019-positive-news
14. Hy – Hyperloop (2023)- Diamandis, Petere H., Within 10 Years, We’ll Travel by Hyperloop, Rockets, and Avatars, Singularity Hub, November 15, 2019https://singularityhub.com/2019/11/15/within-10-years-well-travel-by-hyperloop-rockets-and-avatars/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=within-10-years-well-travel-by-hyperloop-rockets-and-avatars&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiT0RNeFpURm1ZMkkxWlRreCIsInQiOiJPNE9wN2MrajJcLzhmemY3RDVxODhwUVVHeWVDVVpuMkYySVpxNUt2c01VUklUbnBMUTZBdmdpOUFUUnFxSFdTdEdmeURBR2UyR0FFR0hKdW45anlKQ2NBNnUzdlNnR055MWFlVTFyZENKNXdRTzNCYjZQUkwzNWZNRDlXeG5TZ1EifQ%3D%3D
15. Sa – Full Self-Driving Cars (Level 5)- Wang, Brian, Tesla’s Technological Moats for the Win, NBF, December 11, 2019, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/12/teslas-technological-moats-for-the-win.html
16. Mm – Man on the Moon (2024)- Wall, Mike, Trump signs executive order to support moon mining, tap asteroid resources, Space.com, April 6, 2020, https://www.space.com/trump-moon-mining-space-resources-executive-order.html
17. Pe – 3D Printed Electronics– Wang, Brian, Two-photon Lithography Boosts Nanoprinting Speed by Up to 10,000 Times, NBF, January 22, 2020, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2020/01/two-photon-lithography-boosts-nanoprinting-speed-by-up-to-10000-times.html
18. 2c – 2NM CPUs (2020)- Wang, Brian, ASML 1 to 2 Nanometer Chips Will Power Next Generation Technological Revolution, October 17, 2019, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/10/asml-1-to-2-nanometer-chips-will-power-next-generation-technological-revolution.html
19. 5c – Cellular Full Capability (2025)- Karl, Wireless Carriers Are Training Consumers To Equate “5G” With Bluster And Empty Promises, Techdirt, March 9, 2020, https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20200304/10050544031/wireless-carriers-are-training-consumers-to-equate-5g-with-bluster-empty-promises.shtml
20. Wa – Water From Air– Irving, Michael, Harvester Pulls Record Amount of Drinking Water Out of Thin Air, New Atlas, February 2, 2020, https://newatlas.com/materials/harvester-drinking-water-thin-air/
21. Pa- Printed Armor– Allen, Darren, 3D Printers Have Made Bulletproof Cubes – Vests and Tank Armor, Next?, Tech Radar, November 15, 2019, https://www.techradar.com/news/3d-printers-have-made-bulletproof-cubes-vests-and-tank-armor-next
22. Ca – Printed Ceramic Armor– Peck, Mikcahel, The Army Can now 3D-print Body Armor on the Fly, The National Interest, July 16, 2019, https://taskandpurpose.com/military-tech/army-3d-printed-body-armor
Horizon 2 (Mid-Term, 5-10 Years)
23. Bi – Broadband Invisibility Cloak– Houser, Kristin, Watch a Real-Life Invisibility Cloak Designed for Military Use, futurism.com, October 23, 2019, https://futurism.com/the-byte/watch-invisibility-cloak-military-use
24. Bf – Biofuel– Diamandis, Peter H., The Promise of Direct Air Capture: Making Stuff Out of Thin Air, Singularity Hub, August 23, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/08/23/the-promise-of-direct-air-capture-making-stuff-out-of-thin-air/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=the-promise-of-direct-air-capture-making-stuff-out-of-thin-air&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTVRkaVptWmxZVGhtTlRKayIsInQiOiJSZEdqeVwvNmlCS3VBWkNudHliS1praHZnMW9IT3EyWDJFeG9udDN3bWtucU1Zak1hZ1NiV2Z1NlJOdFZVcWk5NHhPZlkrU3JVdVNwRHo5VGhveG9lWlhockNSazVEbXhRWkpicU9FZjlBSGtaSEZYVlwvOXptU0picnJxNEZ3dWM4In0%3D
25. Ho – Holodeck– Houser, Kristin, Scientists Create Holograms You Can See, Hear, and Feel, Futurism, November 15, 2019, https://futurism.com/scientists-create-holograms-see-hear-feel
26. Ie – Instant Economy of Things– Diamandis, Peter H., MD, 20 Technology Metatrends That Will Define the Next Decade, Singularity Hub, January 10, 2020, https://singularityhub.com/2020/01/10/20-tech-metatrends-to-look-out-for-in-the-2020s/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=20-technology-metatrends-that-will-define-the-next-decade&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTnpkallqVmtNRGt3TnpjeiIsInQiOiJ6TzBCQ1NyRjR6UE4wc2xjXC96RkJvcnJtdXdFVUc3eHlzU295Ulo1UTJvaEdZbnZ2RE11aVFDQVJYNVdibkVaejhxc2pCeDFYb3A2bzFtWDkzNWZYRnBSNDlzWmp3XC9iV3N6RUdWVzNFMldJN3VGdnp4R0hRQlJFMTY2VnNpY3FoIn0%3D
27. Mi – Manned Mission to Mars (SpaceX-2027)- Wang, Brian, SpaceX Updated Mars Colonization Plans from Paul Wooster, NBF, October 21, 2019, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/10/spacex-updated-mars-colonization-plans-from-paul-wooster.html
28. Nr – Small Nuclear Reactors– Wang, Brian, Thorcon Thorium Energy Converter Designs and Argonne National Lab Materials Analysis, November 6, 2019, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/11/thorcon-thorium-energy-converter-designs-and-argonne-national-lab-materials-analysis.html
29. Ph – Multi Material 3D Print Head– Allen, Darren, New 3D Printer Tech Inches Closer to Holy Grail of Multi-material Printing, Techradar, November 15, 2019, https://www.techradar.com/news/new-3d-printer-tech-inches-closer-to-holy-grail-of-multi-material-printing
30. Sh – Self Healing Materials– BeauHD, ‘Frankenstein’ Material Can Self-Heal, Reproduce, sciencemag.org, January 17, 2020, https://science.slashdot.org/story/20/01/17/0150201/frankenstein-material-can-self-heal-reproduce
31. Pa – On Chip Particle Accelerator– Wang, Brian, Particle Accelerator on a Chip Will Reach a Million Electron Volts by End of 2020, NBF, January 2, 2020, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2020/01/particle-accelerator-on-a-chip-will-reach-a-million-electron-volts-by-end-of-2020.html
32. St – Commercial Space Tourism– Diamandis, Peter H., Within 10 Years, We’ll Travel by Hyperloop, Rockets, and Avatars, Singularity Hub, November 15, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/11/15/within-10-years-well-travel-by-hyperloop-rockets-and-avatars/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=within-10-years-well-travel-by-hyperloop-rockets-and-avatars&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiT0RNeFpURm1ZMkkxWlRreCIsInQiOiJPNE9wN2MrajJcLzhmemY3RDVxODhwUVVHeWVDVVpuMkYySVpxNUt2c01VUklUbnBMUTZBdmdpOUFUUnFxSFdTdEdmeURBR2UyR0FFR0hKdW45anlKQ2NBNnUzdlNnR055MWFlVTFyZENKNXdRTzNCYjZQUkwzNWZNRDlXeG5TZ1EifQ%3D%3D
33. 5g – Global 5G LEO SATCOM Coverage– Brinkmann, Paul, SpaceX Launch Grows Starlink Constellation to More Than 300 satellites, Space Daily, February 18, 2020, https://www.spacedaily.com/reports/SpaceX_launch_grows_Starlink_constellation_to_more_than_300_satellites_999.html
34. Ec – Edge Computing– I&T Today, Can These Bionic Contact Lenses Turn Your Eyes into Computers?, Inno Tech Today, November 26, 2019, https://innotechtoday.com/bionic-contact-lenses/
35. Sr – 1-6 hour Global Deliver of Goods Via Space (2023)- Wang, Brian, Future SpaceX Hourly Delivery Monopoly and the Expansion of the SpaceX Fleet, NBF, Date, https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2019/11/future-spacex-hourly-delivery-monopoly-and-the-expansion-of-the-spacex-fleet.html
36. Sc – Self-Flying Cars– Boyle, Alan, Morgan Stanley Says Market for Self-flying Cars Could Rise to $1.5 trillion by 2040, December 7, 2018, https://www.geekwire.com/2018/morgan-stanley-report-says-market-self-flying-cars-hit-1-5-trillion-2040/
37. Bc – Blockchain– Anadiotis, George, 5 Technology Trends for the Roaring 20s, Part 1: Blockchain, Cloud, Open source, ZD Net, January 3, 2020, https://www.zdnet.com/article/5-technology-trends-for-the-roaring-20s-part-one-blockchain-cloud-open-source/
38. Ai – AI Does Everything Better Than People– Diamandis, Peter H., MD, 20 Technology Metatrends That Will Define the Next Decade, Singularity Hub, January 10, 2020, https://singularityhub.com/2020/01/10/20-tech-metatrends-to-look-out-for-in-the-2020s/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=20-technology-metatrends-that-will-define-the-next-decade&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTnpkallqVmtNRGt3TnpjeiIsInQiOiJ6TzBCQ1NyRjR6UE4wc2xjXC96RkJvcnJtdXdFVUc3eHlzU295Ulo1UTJvaEdZbnZ2RE11aVFDQVJYNVdibkVaejhxc2pCeDFYb3A2bzFtWDkzNWZYRnBSNDlzWmp3XC9iV3N6RUdWVzNFMldJN3VGdnp4R0hRQlJFMTY2VnNpY3FoIn0%3D
Horizon 3 (Far Term, 10+ Years)
39. 3s – 3D Printed Skin– Goyal, Nidhi, Handheld Bioprinter “Prints” New Skin Directly Onto Wounds, Industry Tap, February 10, 2020, https://www.industrytap.com/handheld-bioprinter-prints-new-skin-directly-onto-wounds/52104
40. Bs – Batsuit for Soldiers– Tucker, Patrick, One Step Closer to a Batsuit for Soldiers, Defense One, February 4, 2020, https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2020/02/one-step-closer-batsuit-soldiers/162883/?oref=d-dontmiss
41. Cc – Carbon Computing– Gent, Edd, Silicon Is Reaching Its Limits. Up Next: Carbon Nanotubes, Singularity Hub, September 3, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/09/03/silicon-is-reaching-its-limits-are-carbon-nanotubes-next/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=eblast&utm_campaign=fy19q3-xthinkers&utm_content=september-week-2&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTkdSak16a3habVZqWVdVMiIsInQiOiJaV0owZHQyaE5zUWlVU2FTbTFnNmR2aFErdlg1cXJEYXhvSXdjQUdDVUYrSW85VldGeTVGdXhEUTE2d2NicW9IUVBDV05xZ3BiZ09vN3lLSFRJM21SOEVENEhMa1lOTk1XZFU1dEFYbEZpaDVCTVhtV1daaWV5MXMzK0FqdElZRiJ9
42. Co – CO2 Harvesting (DAC)- Diamandis, Peter H., The Promise of Direct Air Capture: Making Stuff Out of Thin Air, Singularity Hub, August 23, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/08/23/the-promise-of-direct-air-capture-making-stuff-out-of-thin-air/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=the-promise-of-direct-air-capture-making-stuff-out-of-thin-air&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTVRkaVptWmxZVGhtTlRKayIsInQiOiJSZEdqeVwvNmlCS3VBWkNudHliS1praHZnMW9IT3EyWDJFeG9udDN3bWtucU1Zak1hZ1NiV2Z1NlJOdFZVcWk5NHhPZlkrU3JVdVNwRHo5VGhveG9lWlhockNSazVEbXhRWkpicU9FZjlBSGtaSEZYVlwvOXptU0picnJxNEZ3dWM4In0%3D
43. Oc – Optical Computing– Gent, Edd, Could Photonic Chips Outpace the Fastest Supercomputers?, Singularity Hub, February 03, 2020, https://singularityhub.com/2019/09/03/silicon-is-reaching-its-limits-are-carbon-nanotubes-next/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=eblast&utm_campaign=fy19q3-xthinkers&utm_content=september-week-2&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTkdSak16a3habVZqWVdVMiIsInQiOiJaV0owZHQyaE5zUWlVU2FTbTFnNmR2aFErdlg1cXJEYXhvSXdjQUdDVUYrSW85VldGeTVGdXhEUTE2d2NicW9IUVBDV05xZ3BiZ09vN3lLSFRJM21SOEVENEhMa1lOTk1XZFU1dEFYbEZpaDVCTVhtV1daaWV5MXMzK0FqdElZRiJ9
44. Qr – Quantum Radar– Robitzski, Dan, Scientists Built a Working “Quantum Radar” Device, August 23, 2019, https://futurism.com/the-byte/working-quantum-radar-device
45. Rf – Robotic Touch and Feel at a Distance (ANA XPRIZE)- MacCaulay, Thomas, ‘Sensorized’ Skin Helps Robots Understand Where the Hell They Are, TNW February 12, 2020, https://thenextweb.com/neural/2020/02/13/sensorized-skin-helps-robots-understand-where-the-hell-they-are/
46. Ss – Supersonic/ Hypersonic Passenger Plane– Butcher, Mark, Reaction Engines’ Mach 5 Engine is Just the Tip of the New Aerospace Boom, Tech Crunch, November 1, 2019, https://techcrunch.com/2019/11/01/reaction-engines-mach-5-engine-is-just-the-tip-of-the-new-aerospace-boom/2019/11/01/reaction-engines-mach-5-engine-is-just-the-tip-of-the-new-aerospace-boom/
47. Ww – Wetware (Direct PC to Brain Interface)- Diamandis, Peter H., MD, 20 Technology Metatrends That Will Define the Next Decade, Singularity Hub, January 10, 2020, https://singularityhub.com/2020/01/10/20-tech-metatrends-to-look-out-for-in-the-2020s/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=20-technology-metatrends-that-will-define-the-next-decade&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTnpkallqVmtNRGt3TnpjeiIsInQiOiJ6TzBCQ1NyRjR6UE4wc2xjXC96RkJvcnJtdXdFVUc3eHlzU295Ulo1UTJvaEdZbnZ2RE11aVFDQVJYNVdibkVaejhxc2pCeDFYb3A2bzFtWDkzNWZYRnBSNDlzWmp3XC9iV3N6RUdWVzNFMldJN3VGdnp4R0hRQlJFMTY2VnNpY3FoIn0%3D\
48. Te – Telepathy– Robitzski, Dan, Scientists: Brain Implants Could Essentially Make Us Telepathic, Futurism, September 10, 2019, https://futurism.com/the-byte/scientists-brain-implants-telepathic
49. 3t – 3D Printed Space Station– Diamandis, Peter H. & Kotler, Steven, Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World, Simon & Schuster, February 3, 2018, https://www.amazon.com/Bold-Create-Wealth-Impact-World/dp/1476709580/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Bold%3A+How+to+Go+Big%2C+Create+Wealth+and+Impact+the+World&qid=1585339822&sr=8-1
50. 3m – 3d Printed Tanks– Majumdar, Dave, Russia’s Radical Battlefield Plan: 3D Printing for Tanks, National Interest, February 19, 2016, https://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/russias-radical-battlefield-plan-3d-printing-tanks-15158
51. 6g – 6G Cellular (2030)- Horowitz, Jeremy, Docomo Says 6G Will Bring AI Everywhere, Deliver ‘Extreme’ Performance, January 24, 2020, https://venturebeat.com/2020/01/24/docomo-says-6g-will-bring-ai-everywhere-deliver-extreme-performance/
52. Sp – Beaming Solar Power From Space– Goyal, Nidhi, Believe It or Not! China Plans to Put a Solar Power Station in Space, Industry Tap, December 10, 2019, https://www.industrytap.com/believe-it-or-not-china-plans-to-put-a-solar-power-station-in-space/51335
53. La – Full Long Range Augmented Reality– Horwitz, Jeremy, 5G’s Secret Weapon Will be Low Latency, Empowering Next-gen VR and Gaming, Venture Beat, March 2, 2019, https://venturebeat.com/2018/03/02/5gs-secret-weapon-will-be-low-latency-empowering-next-gen-vr-and-gaming/
54. Mh – Metallic Hydrogen– Brooks Michael, Metallic Hydrogen Would be the Ultimate Fuel – If We Can Make It, New Scientist, January 1, 2020, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24532630-800-metallic-hydrogen-would-be-the-ultimate-fuel-if-we-can-make-it/
55. Ma – Metamorphic Manufacturing– Daehn, Glenn, ‘Robotic Blacksmithing’: A Technology That Could Revive US Manufacturing, Singularity Hub, December 13, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/12/13/robotic-blacksmithing-a-technology-that-could-revive-us-manufacturing/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=robotic-blacksmithing-a-technology-that-could-revive-us-manufacturing&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTW1KaE9EVmtNemhpTURSaiIsInQiOiJUMk8yUmNOaG9jWEZNbUZDdWNGaWsrcjZ5ZFpVWXdqb21UN1RtSmtLdUtZdEgwYXEyTkl6dExJaHV3akJ6XC92RlpaNWtkZCtSZGpUcWF0MjByTXhsNDRpd05NelFwdXVxR1dBSGFIK1NBUTRLOWFjVXo5VDcyMkJhMFk3b2VVd1oifQ%3D%3D
56. Nf – Nano Fabrication– Hornigold, Thomas, How a Machine That Can Make Anything Would Change Everything, December 29, 2019, https://singularityhub.com/2019/12/29/how-a-machine-that-can-make-anything-would-change-everything/?utm_medium=email&utm_content=how-a-machine-that-can-make-anything-would-change-everything&utm_source=newsletter&utm_campaign=fy18-hub-daily-rss-newsletter&mkt_tok=eyJpIjoiTnprMU9EZGtNMkl4TW1JMyIsInQiOiJyS1wvMU43NmVNVEFVK0Q4S1hYc1ZkOFJYNzhXOWJUQTRtekRjUUk5RXR1YWgwQUJJYkpCbzFrSytOQ2RHalNwd1grc1JpS21cL25aV1wvZ2tXVHJcL0g4SnBZempzQUJFSFwvNFpFYUpoQTJDT2t3dkFLMHdMT0tjMk9hTUpyTlwvVHZTSCJ9
57. Qi – Quantum Internet– DeMarco, Nacho, Quantum Internet: How Close Are We To The Future Of Data Transmission, Forbes, October 23, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2019/10/23/quantum-internet-how-close-are-we-to-the-future-of-data-transmission/#251cfe327cbf
58. Sw – Web 3.0– The Spatial Web (2030)- Diamandis, Peter H. & Kotler, Steven, The Future is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives, Simon & Shuster, January 28, 2020. p.118, https://www.amazon.com/Future-Faster-Than-You-Think/dp/1982109661/ref=sr_1_2?dchild=1&keywords=The+Future+is+Faster+Than+You+Think%3A+How+Converging+Technologies+Are+Transforming+Business&qid=1584994908&sr=8-2
59. Um – Universal Computer Memory– Lancaster Univ., Universal Memory’ Research Passes New Milestone, TechXplore, January 20, 2020, https://techxplore.com/news/2020-01-universal-memory-milestone.html
60. Yb – Y2K38 Bug– Parker, Matt, Humble Pi: When Math Goes Wrong in the Real World, January 21, 2020, p.289-291, https://www.amazon.com/Humble-Pi-When-Wrong-World/dp/0593084683/ref=tmm_hrd_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1585098874&sr=1-2
61. Mp – 1M People on Mars (2050)- Tangermann, Victor, Elon Musk Says He’ll Put A Million People on Mars By 2050, January 17, 2020, https://futurism.com/the-byte/elon-musk-million-people-mars-2050?utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_03cd0a26cd-68a0b7b0bc-250319853&mc_cid=68a0b7b0bc&mc_eid=3f54129834&utm_source=The%20Future%20Is&utm_campaign=68a0b7b0bc-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_01_17_07_07
62. Db – Diamond Batteries– Robitzski, Dan, New Technique Turns Nuclear Waste Into “Diamond Batteries”, Futurism, January 22, 2020, https://futurism.com/the-byte/nuclear-waste-diamond-batteries
63. Ls – Data at 30X the Speed of Light– Goyal, Nihdi, Scientists Make Light Travel 30x Faster, Slow Down And Even Travel Backward, April 8, 2019, https://www.industrytap.com/scientists-make-light-travel-30x-faster-slow-down-and-even-travel-backward/48485
64. Dc – DNA Computing– Anadiotis, George, Forget Silicon – SQL on DNA is the Next Frontier for Databases, ZDNet, July 22, 2019, https://www.zdnet.com/article/forget-silicon-sql-on-dna-is-the-next-frontier-for-databases/
65. Er – Extended Reality– Joshi, Jitendra, SMAC in the DARQ: the Tech Trends Shaping 202 0, Tech Xplore, December 5, 2019, https://techxplore.com/news/2019-12-smac-darq-tech-trends.html
66. Ff – Force Fields– Reference from science fiction
67. Qc – Room Temperature Quantum Computing– Benios, Thanis, Team Closes in on ‘Holy Grail’ of Room Temperature Quantum Computing Chips, Physics.org, September 18, 2019, https://phys.org/news/2019-09-team-holy-grail-room-temperature.html
68. Si – The Singularity– Kurzweil, Ray, The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, The Viking Press, September 22, 2005, https://www.amazon.com/Singularity-Near-Humans-Transcend-Biology/dp/0143037889/ref=sr_1_3?dchild=1&keywords=singularity&qid=1586974897&sr=8-3
69. Se – Space Elevator– Snowden, Beth, A Colossal Elevator to Space Could be Going Up Sooner Than You Ever Imagined, NBC News, October 2, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/colossal-elevator-space-could-be-going-sooner-you-ever-imagined-ncna915421
70. Tt – Time Travel– Houser, Kristin, Astrophysicist Says He Knows How to Build a Time Machine, January 2, 2020, https://futurism.com/astrophysicist-build-time-machine-past
71. Wd – Warp Drive– Banias, MJ, This Student Is One of the Top Scientists Studying Faster-Than-Light Warp Drives, Motherboard, October 15, 2019, https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/ywaxeb/this-student-is-one-of-the-top-scientists-studying-faster-than-light-warp-drives
72. Zp – Zero Point Energy– Blakemore, Chas, Harnessing Zero-Point Energy, Stanford, December 10, 2017, http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2017/ph240/blakemore1/
73. Uf – Travel Via UFO Like Vehicles– Pero, James, U.S. Navy has Been Granted a Patent on Theoretical Aircraft Resembling Recently-Reported UFOs That Could Bend the Laws of Physics to Fly Through Water, Air, and Space, Daily Mail, June 28, 2019, https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-7194019/U-S-Navy-patents-theoretical-ship-bends-physics-speed-air-water-space.html
74. Sd – Technology in Stealth Development– New capabilities being worked on in secrecy
75. En – Entrepreneurs and Intrepreneurs– You never know what they are working on
76. Qt – We Can’t Talk About This